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Die besten Desert Rezepte - 35 Desert Rezepte und viele weitere beliebte Kochrezepte finden Sie bei officeincloud.co Übersetzung für 'desert' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. desert Bedeutung, Definition desert: 1. an area, often covered with sand or rocks, where there is very little rain and not many plants. Désert oder Desert (von frz. désert für Wüste) ist der Nachname oder ein Namensteil folgender Personen: Alex Désert (* ), US-amerikanischer. Übersetzung im Kontext von „desert“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: desert island, desert storm, in the middle of the desert, sahara desert, atacama. Der rötliche Lichtschein einer Notfackel erhellt den Weg des mysteriösen Objekts nur notdürftig, während es sich entschlossen durch die verlassene Umgebung schiebt, ohne dabei einen Hinweis über Ziel und Zweck seiner nächtlichen Wanderung zu geben. Und dann ereignet sich auf einer verlassenen Waldstrasse ein schwerer Autounfall, bei dem vier von Donderdag jungen Menschen auf der Stelle tot sind. Ich war in der WüsteMenschen sind dort gestorben, cannot Pokertisch Rund opinion macht mich hellhörig. Wüste gefolgt Nach diesen Rezepten wird zurzeit viel gesucht:. Beispiele of desert. Gobi Desert. That is why they are also called polar deserts. If they don't survive, that could Teslakugel species read article as the yucca moth, which lays its eggs inside the Joshua tree flower. The New York Times. These kinds of desserts usually include a thickened dairy base. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. See more grows slowly but may Desert- for up to two hundred years. Desert-

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This process, known as desertification, is not caused by drought , but usually arises from deforestation and the demands of human populations that settle on the semi-arid lands.

The pounding of the soil by the hooves of livestock in ranching, for example, may degrade the soil and encourage erosion by wind and water.

In northern China, growing urbanization, which left much of the land unprotected against wind erosion and the buildup of sediment from the surrounding desert, created a desertification problem, prompting the government to build a " great green wall " as a hedge against encroaching desert.

In existing deserts, some species are in peril because of climate change. Global warming threatens to change the ecology of deserts : Higher temperatures may produce more wildfires that alter desert landscapes by eliminating slow-growing trees and shrubs and replacing them with fast-growing grasses.

Many desert plants can live for hundreds of years. But in California, the iconic Joshua tree—the oldest found was 1, years old— may not survive a hotter climate , scientists warn.

If they don't survive, that could affect species such as the yucca moth, which lays its eggs inside the Joshua tree flower.

Desert bird species could also be in danger from climate change, as heat waves lead to lethal dehydration.

Paradoxically, the effort to reduce planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions by expanding solar energy has also created some tensions for desert habitats.

In the Mojave, the arrival of the Ivanpah solar thermal plant created concerns about how the facility would affect threatened desert tortoises , and conservationists are working to ensure solar energy projects like these can coexist with wildlife.

Other land use changes also threaten to degrade desert habitats. The downsizing of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument poses a threat to some of the bee species that live in the area, while the prospect of a border wall between the U.

Deserts, explained Deserts may seem lifeless, but in fact many species have evolved special ways to survive in the harsh environments.

Other desert features include rock outcrops , exposed bedrock and clays once deposited by flowing water. Temporary lakes may form and salt pans may be left when waters evaporate.

There may be underground sources of water in the form of springs and seepages from aquifers. Where these are found, oases can occur.

Plants and animals living in the desert need special adaptations to survive in the harsh environment. Plants tend to be tough and wiry with small or no leaves, water-resistant cuticles and often spines to deter herbivory.

Some annual plants germinate , bloom and die in the course of a few weeks after rainfall while other long-lived plants survive for years and have deep root systems able to tap underground moisture.

Animals need to keep cool and find enough food and water to survive. Many are nocturnal and stay in the shade or underground during the heat of the day.

They tend to be efficient at conserving water, extracting most of their needs from their food and concentrating their urine.

Some animals remain in a state of dormancy for long periods, ready to become active again during the rare rainfall. They then reproduce rapidly while conditions are favorable before returning to dormancy.

People have struggled to live in deserts and the surrounding semi-arid lands for millennia. Nomads have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available and oases have provided opportunities for a more settled way of life.

The cultivation of semi-arid regions encourages erosion of soil and is one of the causes of increased desertification. Desert farming is possible with the aid of irrigation , and the Imperial Valley in California provides an example of how previously barren land can be made productive by the import of water from an outside source.

Many trade routes have been forged across deserts, especially across the Sahara Desert , and traditionally were used by caravans of camels carrying salt, gold, ivory and other goods.

Large numbers of slaves were also taken northwards across the Sahara [ citation needed ]. Some mineral extraction also takes place in deserts, and the uninterrupted sunlight gives potential for the capture of large quantities of solar energy.

In English before the 20th century, desert was often used in the sense of "unpopulated area", without specific reference to aridity; [1] but today the word is most often used in its climate-science sense an area of low precipitation.

A desert is a region of land that is very dry because it receives low amounts of precipitation usually in the form of rain, but it may be snow, mist or fog , often has little coverage by plants, and in which streams dry up unless they are supplied by water from outside the area.

Deserts have been defined and classified in a number of ways, generally combining total precipitation, number of days on which this falls, temperature, and humidity, and sometimes additional factors.

Potential evapotranspiration supplements the measurement of precipitation in providing a scientific measurement-based definition of a desert.

Evapotranspiration is the combination of water loss through atmospheric evaporation and through the life processes of plants. Potential evapotranspiration, then, is the amount of water that could evaporate in any given region.

Rates of evapotranspiration in cold regions such as Alaska are much lower because of the lack of heat to aid in the evaporation process. Deserts are sometimes classified as "hot" or "cold", "semiarid" or "coastal".

Winter temperatures vary considerably between different deserts and are often related to the location of the desert on the continental landmass and the latitude.

Cold deserts, sometimes known as temperate deserts, occur at higher latitudes than hot deserts, and the aridity is caused by the dryness of the air.

Some cold deserts are far from the ocean and others are separated by mountain ranges from the sea, and in both cases, there is insufficient moisture in the air to cause much precipitation.

The largest of these deserts are found in Central Asia. Others occur on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains , the eastern side of the southern Andes and in southern Australia.

The air is very cold and carries little moisture so little precipitation occurs and what does fall, usually snow, is carried along in the often strong wind and may form blizzards, drifts and dunes similar to those caused by dust and sand in other desert regions.

However, such factors as the temperature, humidity, rate of evaporation and evapotranspiration, and the moisture storage capacity of the ground have a marked effect on the degree of aridity and the plant and animal life that can be sustained.

Rain falling in the cold season may be more effective at promoting plant growth, and defining the boundaries of deserts and the semiarid regions that surround them on the grounds of precipitation alone is problematic.

A semi-arid desert or a steppe is a version of the arid desert with much more rainfall, vegetation and higher humidity. These regions feature a semi-arid climate and are less extreme than regular deserts.

They share some characteristics of a true desert and are usually located at the edge of deserts and continental dry areas.

Coastal deserts are mostly found on the western edges of continental land masses in regions where cold currents approach the land or cold water upwellings rise from the ocean depths.

The cool winds crossing this water pick up little moisture and the coastal regions have low temperatures and very low rainfall, the main precipitation being in the form of fog and dew.

Deserts of this type are often long and narrow and bounded to the east by mountain ranges. Other coastal deserts influenced by cold currents are found in Western Australia , the Arabian Peninsula and Horn of Africa , and the western fringes of the Sahara.

In , Peveril Meigs divided desert regions on Earth into three categories according to the amount of precipitation they received.

Both extremely arid and arid lands are considered to be deserts while semiarid lands are generally referred to as steppes when they are grasslands.

Deserts are also classified, according to their geographical location and dominant weather pattern, as trade wind, mid-latitude, rain shadow, coastal, monsoon, or polar deserts.

These belts are associated with the subtropical anticyclone and the large-scale descent of dry air moving from high-altitudes toward the poles.

The Sahara Desert is of this type. They are mostly in areas remote from the sea where most of the moisture has already precipitated from the prevailing winds.

They include the Tengger and Sonoran Deserts. They occur in regions where large temperature differences occur between sea and land.

Moist warm air rises over the land, deposits its water content and circulates back to sea. Further inland, areas receive very little precipitation.

In some parts of the world, deserts are created by a rain shadow effect. Orographic lift occurs as air masses rise to pass over high ground.

In the process they cool and lose much of their moisture by precipitation on the windward slope of the mountain range. When they descend on the leeward side, they warm and their capacity to hold moisture increases so an area with relatively little precipitation occurs.

Montane deserts are arid places with a very high altitude ; the most prominent example is found north of the Himalayas, in the Kunlun Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau.

Montane deserts are normally cold, or may be scorchingly hot by day and very cold by night as is true of the northeastern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro.

Polar deserts such as McMurdo Dry Valleys remain ice-free because of the dry katabatic winds that flow downhill from the surrounding mountains.

In the Thornthwaite climate classification system, deserts would be classified as arid megathermal climates.

Deserts usually have a large diurnal and seasonal temperature range, with high daytime temperatures falling sharply at night.

Such large temperature variations have a destructive effect on the exposed rocky surfaces. The repeated fluctuations put a strain on exposed rock and the flanks of mountains crack and shatter.

Fragmented strata slide down into the valleys where they continue to break into pieces due to the relentless sun by day and chill by night.

Successive strata are exposed to further weathering. The relief of the internal pressure that has built up in rocks that have been underground for aeons can cause them to shatter.

This is believed to be caused by the stresses put on the rock by repeated thermal expansions and contractions which induces fracturing parallel to the original surface.

The necessary moisture may be present in the form of dew or mist. Ground water may be drawn to the surface by evaporation and the formation of salt crystals may dislodge rock particles as sand or disintegrate rocks by exfoliation.

Shallow caves are sometimes formed at the base of cliffs by this means. As the desert mountains decay, large areas of shattered rock and rubble occur.

The process continues and the end products are either dust or sand. Dust is formed from solidified clay or volcanic deposits whereas sand results from the fragmentation of harder granites , limestone and sandstone.

As the mountains are eroded, more and more sand is created. At high wind speeds, sand grains are picked up off the surface and blown along, a process known as saltation.

The whirling airborne grains act as a sand blasting mechanism which grinds away solid objects in its path as the kinetic energy of the wind is transferred to the ground.

Sand and dust storms are natural events that occur in arid regions where the land is not protected by a covering of vegetation.

Dust storms usually start in desert margins rather than the deserts themselves where the finer materials have already been blown away.

As a steady wind begins to blow, fine particles lying on the exposed ground begin to vibrate. At greater wind speeds, some particles are lifted into the air stream.

When they land, they strike other particles which may be jerked into the air in their turn, starting a chain reaction.

Once ejected, these particles move in one of three possible ways, depending on their size, shape and density; suspension , saltation or creep.

Suspension is only possible for particles less than 0. The sunlight can be obliterated and it may become as dark as night at ground level.

The mean particle size was 1. Sandstorms occur with much less frequency than dust storms. They are often preceded by severe dust storms and occur when the wind velocity increases to a point where it can lift heavier particles.

These grains of sand, up to about 0. Their weight prevents them from being airborne for long and most only travel a distance of a few meters yards.

They are transported by creep, being rolled along the desert floor or performing short jumps. During a sandstorm, the wind-blown sand particles become electrically charged.

They are also unpleasant for humans and can cause headaches and nausea. Deserts take up about one third of the Earth's land surface.

Eolian processes are major factors in shaping desert landscapes. Polar deserts also seen as "cold deserts" have similar features, except the main form of precipitation is snow rather than rain.

Some of the barren rock is to be found in the so-called Dry Valleys of Antarctica that almost never get snow, which can have ice-encrusted saline lakes that suggest evaporation far greater than the rare snowfall due to the strong katabatic winds that even evaporate ice.

Deserts, both hot and cold, play a part in moderating the Earth's temperature. This is because they reflect more of the incoming light and their albedo is higher than that of forests or the sea.

Many people think of deserts as consisting of extensive areas of billowing sand dunes because that is the way they are often depicted on TV and in films, [45] but deserts do not always look like this.

A sand sheet is a near-level, firm expanse of partially consolidated particles in a layer that varies from a few centimeters to a few meters thick.

The structure of the sheet consists of thin horizontal layers of coarse silt and very fine to medium grain sand, separated by layers of coarse sand and pea-gravel which are a single grain thick.

These larger particles anchor the other particles in place and may also be packed together on the surface so as to form a miniature desert pavement.

They form perpendicular to the wind direction and gradually move across the surface as the wind continues to blow.

The distance between their crests corresponds to the average length of jumps made by particles during saltation.

The ripples are ephemeral and a change in wind direction causes them to reorganise. Sand dunes are accumulations of windblown sand piled up in mounds or ridges.

They form downwind of copious sources of dry, loose sand and occur when topographic and climatic conditions cause airborne particles to settle.

As the wind blows, saltation and creep take place on the windward side of the dune and individual grains of sand move uphill.

When they reach the crest, they cascade down the far side. As this wind-induced movement of sand grains takes place, the dune moves slowly across the surface of the ground.

When these are extensive, they are known as sand seas or ergs. The shape of the dune depends on the characteristics of the prevailing wind.

Barchan dunes are produced by strong winds blowing across a level surface and are crescent-shaped with the concave side away from the wind.

When there are two directions from which winds regularly blow, a series of long, linear dunes known as seif dunes may form. These also occur parallel to a strong wind that blows in one general direction.

Transverse dunes run at a right angle to the prevailing wind direction. Star dunes are formed by variable winds, and have several ridges and slip faces radiating from a central point.

Rounded mounds of sand without a slip face are the rare dome dunes, found on the upwind edges of sand seas.

A large part of the surface area of the world's deserts consists of flat, stone-covered plains dominated by wind erosion.

In "eolian deflation", the wind continually removes fine-grained material, which becomes wind-blown sand.

This exposes coarser-grained material, mainly pebbles with some larger stones or cobbles , [36] [47] leaving a desert pavement , an area of land overlaid by closely packed smooth stones forming a tessellated mosaic.

Different theories exist as to how exactly the pavement is formed. It may be that after the sand and dust is blown away by the wind the stones jiggle themselves into place; alternatively, stones previously below ground may in some way work themselves to the surface.

Very little further erosion takes place after the formation of a pavement, and the ground becomes stable.

Evaporation brings moisture to the surface by capillary action and calcium salts may be precipitated, binding particles together to form a desert conglomerate.

Other non-sandy deserts consist of exposed outcrops of bedrock , dry soils or aridisols , and a variety of landforms affected by flowing water , such as alluvial fans , sinks or playas , temporary or permanent lakes , and oases.

Other landforms include plains largely covered by gravels and angular boulders, from which the finer particles have been stripped by the wind.

In some places the wind has carved holes or arches, and in others, it has created mushroom-like pillars narrower at the base than the top.

Here the Colorado River has cut its way over the millennia through the high desert floor creating a canyon that is over a mile 6, feet or 1, meters deep in places, exposing strata that are over two billion years old.

One of the driest places on Earth is the Atacama Desert. The cold Humboldt Current and the anticyclone of the Pacific are essential to keep the dry climate of the Atacama.

Some weather stations in the Atacama have never received rain. Evidence suggests that the Atacama may not have had any significant rainfall from to When rain falls in deserts, as it occasionally does, it is often with great violence.

The desert surface is evidence of this with dry stream channels known as arroyos or wadis meandering across its surface.

These can experience flash floods , becoming raging torrents with surprising rapidity after a storm that may be many kilometers away.

Most deserts are in basins with no drainage to the sea but some are crossed by exotic rivers sourced in mountain ranges or other high rainfall areas beyond their borders.

The River Nile , the Colorado River and the Yellow River do this, losing much of their water through evaporation as they pass through the desert and raising groundwater levels nearby.

There may also be underground sources of water in deserts in the form of springs , aquifers , underground rivers or lakes.

Where these lie close to the surface, wells can be dug and oases may form where plant and animal life can flourish. A lake occupied this depression in ancient times and thick deposits of sandy-clay resulted.

Wells are dug to extract water from the porous sandstone that lies underneath. Lakes may form in basins where there is sufficient precipitation or meltwater from glaciers above.

They are usually shallow and saline, and wind blowing over their surface can cause stress, moving the water over nearby low-lying areas.

When the lakes dry up, they leave a crust or hardpan behind. This area of deposited clay, silt or sand is known as a playa.

The deserts of North America have more than one hundred playas, many of them relics of Lake Bonneville which covered parts of Utah, Nevada and Idaho during the last ice age when the climate was colder and wetter.

The smooth flat surfaces of playas have been used for attempted vehicle speed records at Black Rock Desert and Bonneville Speedway and the United States Air Force uses Rogers Dry Lake in the Mojave Desert as runways for aircraft and the space shuttle.

Plants face severe challenges in arid environments. Problems they need to solve include how to obtain enough water, how to avoid being eaten and how to reproduce.

Photosynthesis is the key to plant growth. Clouds of sand or dust are often so dense that they obscure the sun. A sandstorm can move whole sand dunes.

Sandstorms are common in large, dusty deserts. There are not many animals in the desert, but some animals are able to survive.

They have different ways to survive the intense conditions of the desert. Examples of animals that live in hot deserts are lizards, small rodents, snakes , and camels.

Plants and animals in hot deserts must live with very little water. Xerophytic plants which live in the desert have special adaptations.

They may survive by growing roots that are very near the surface to absorb the rain that may fall before it evaporates.

Plants such as the cactus have thick, fleshy stems that help them store water. Small animals such as lizards and small rodents often escape the hot rays by digging underground burrows where they live.

Like the plants, desert animals must live on as little water as possible. Most of the water used by these animals comes from seeds and stems that absorb and hold water.

Camels survive in hot deserts by storing water in body fat in their humps. Like other desert animals, the camel loses little water in its wastes urine and feces.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. August National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 2 April Extreme Science. Retrieved AdAstra : 30— BBC News.

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